This article is published by – Training Solutions by Accord Worldwide, Inc. Accordemy offers short management courses for Afghans.



In this chapter we presented the overall overview of the project. Objectives were highlighted, Scope was defined, software were identified. The problem background and problem statement were mentioned and proposed methodology were briefly explained.

The next chapter will give details about the current working system. It will discuss the limitation and drawback of existing system and will discuss the mechanism that how to remove the limitation of the existing system.



This chapter introduces the project. It provides a basic introduction on the project and presents the problem statement. The proposed solution is presented and major objectives are highlighted. The significance and scope is also explained in details.



What is 5G?

While 5G is not expected until 2020, an increasing number of companies are investing now to prepare for the new mobile wireless standard. We explore 5G, how it works and its impact on future wireless systems. (See also: A timeline of UK 5G development).


5G simply stands for fifth generation and refers to the next and newest mobile wireless standard based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard of broadband technology, although a formal standard for 5G is yet to be set.


According to the Next Generation Mobile Network’s 5G white paper, 5G connections must be based on ‘user experience, system performance, enhanced services, business models and management & operations. [1]






Problem Statement:

The problems of previous generations of the internet are as follows.

1G Problems

The main drawback of 1g technology is that it uses analog signals rather than digital signals, This is a less effective means of transmitting information, It is slower, and the signals cannot reach as far in terms of secluded areas and such 2G and 3G signal is far more widespread .

2G Problems

You can see many advantages of 2g technology , But using the 2G technology requires powerful digital signals to help the mobile phones work , But the digital signals could be weak if there is no network coverage in any specific area .The weaker digital signal transmitted by the cellular phone cannot be sufficient to reach the cell tower in less populous areas , It causes a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies , but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies , The national regulations differ greatly among the countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed .

3G Problems

The service provider has to pay high amount for 3G licensing & agreements, the problem with the availability of handsets in few regions & their costs, 3G networks need different devices & the power consumption is high.



4G Problems

Obtaining the information from the people illegally becomes easier , 4G technology involves the possibility of some interference though not much , It is capable of being attacked ( jamming frequencies ) and the invasion of the privacy increased .

The consumer is forced to buy a new device to support the 4G , New frequencies means new components in the cell towers , Higher data prices for the consumers , Your current equipment cannot be compatible with the 4G network , It has different network bands for different phones It is expensive & hard to implement .


Problem Solution:

The previous generation of the internet have a lot of problems.

The fifth generation internet has solved these problems and is very good

For example, the speed is very high








5 Generation

Like all the previous generations, 5G will be significantly faster than its predecessor 4G.

This should allow for higher productivity across all capable devices with a theoretical download speed of 10,000 Mbps.


“Current 4G mobile standards have the potential to provide 100s of Mbps. 5G offers to take that into multi-gigabits per second, giving rise to the ‘Gigabit Smartphone’ and hopefully a slew of innovative services and applications that truly need the type of connectivity that only 5G can offer,” says Paul Gain ham, senior director, SP Marketing EMEA at Juniper Networks.

Plus, with greater bandwidth comes faster download speeds and the ability to run more complex mobile internet apps.











First Generation (1G)

1G stands for First Generation of wireless communication technology of mobile network.   wireless standard developed in1980, first generation replace 0G technology which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as mobile telephone system 1G based on analog signal, 2G digital signal are very dependent. 1G has low capacity, unreliable handoff; in 1G the voice quality is very bad and no security, making calls accountable to unwanted nose round by third parties. If a 2G mobile made a call far away from cell tower, the digital signal might not be strong sufficient to reach it. 1G mobile had usually poorer quality than that of 2G handset; it continues to long distance. Analog signal causes big problem and have not sufficient solution unless and until to move on next generation technology [2]


First Generation problem (1G)

This is the name given to the first generation of mobile telephone network. These systems used analogue circuit-switched technology, with Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), and worked mainly in the 800-900 MHz frequency bands. The networks had a low traffic capacity, unreliable handover, poor voice quality and poor security. The first commercially available cellular networking using 1G standard was introduced by Telegraph and Telephone .






Applications= Voice Calls

Switching type= Circuit switching

Introduced= in year 1981

Multiple Address/Access system= FDMA

Features= Voice only

Internet service= No Internet

Bandwidth= 2 Kbps

Operating frequencies=800 to 900 MHz

Carrier frequency=30 KHZ



Advantage of First Generation (1G)

1G, or “first generation,” mobile phones were cell phones that used the first successful standard network technology. The 1G standard was dominant in the 1980s, when many Americans became aware of cell phone technology for the first time. 1G phone had several advantages after being introduced, but 2G mobile phones made 1G technology largely obsolete in the 1990s. Simpler (less complex) network elements

Disadvantage of First Generation (1G)

Figure 1 (First Generation)

Limited capacity, not secure, poor battery life, large phone size, background interfe



Second Generation (2G)

2G stands for Second Generation of mobile network. 2G cannot transfer data, such as email or software other than the digital voice call itself. SMS messaging is also available as a form of data transmission for some standards 2G network standard based on GSM that is launched by Finland in 1991. GSM service used by 2 billion people from corner to corner 212 countries 2G technologies can be divided in Time Division Multiple Access based on Code Division multiple access standard depending on the type of multiplexing used. 2G digital signal consume less battery power. Digital encoding can improve the voice quality and reduce noise in the line. 2.5G based on General Packet Radio Service GPRS could provide data rates from 56 Kbp/s up to 11 Kbp/s, this service based on wireless network protocol access 2.75G based on improved data rates for GSM evolution is a digital mobile phone technology which acts as built-on improvement to 2G and 2.5G General Packet Radio Service. EDGE technology is complete version of GSM.[3]


Second Generation problem (2G)

The first digital cell phones were the second generation (2G) of cellular technology. Digital phones use the same radio technology as analogue phones, but they used it differently. Analogue systems don’t fully use the signal between the phone and the cellular network. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide services such as text messages, picture messages and multimedia messages (MMS). Second generation technology is more efficient. It holds sufficient security for both the sender and receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that the intended receiver can receive and read. 2G makes use of a Compression-decompression algorithm (CODEC) to compress and multiplex digital voice data. Through this technology, a 2G network can pack more calls per amount of bandwidth as a 1G network. 2G cell phones units were generally smaller than 1G unites, since they emitted less radio power




Applications: Voice calls, Short messages, browsing (partial)

Switching type: Circuit switching for Voice and Packet switching for Data

Introduced in year 1991

Multiple Address/Access system= TDMA, CDMA

Features= Multiple users on single channel

Internet service= Narrowband

Bandwidth=10 Kbps

Operating frequencies= 850MHz to 1900MHz (GSM) and 825MHz to 849MHz (CDMA)

Carrier frequency=200 KHz


Advantage of Second Generation (2G)

The GPRS technology provides the following advantage enable the use of packet based air interface over the existing circuit switch GSM network which allow greater efficiency in the radio spectrum because the Radio Bandwidth ins used only when packets are sent or received supports minimal upgrades to the existing GSM network infrastructures for those network service provider s data who want to add GPRS services on top of GSM which is currently widely deployed supports data rates of about 115 KPS which is greater than the Traditional 9.6 Kbps rate available in a circuit switched connection supports large massage lengths than short massage services (SMS) supports virtual private network (VPN) internet service provider (ISP) corporate site access Multimedia features (SMS, MMS), Internet access and SIM introduced

Disadvantage of Second Generation (2G)

Here are the main disadvantages of 2g technologies:

Low network range, slow data rates

Weaker digital signal

Reduced Range of sound


Figure 2 (Second Generation)


Third Generation (3G)

3G stands for third generation the world best connection method. Both the communication and Government companies approved 3G standards the basic feature of 3G technology fast data transfer rate. 3G technology uses TDMA and CDMA. 3G network range between 400 MHz to 3GHz The 3G uses WCDMA framework and it’s very flexible and unique. 3G provides high speed internet and high quality audio quality as compare to the 2G the IMT-2000 standard, a systemize required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s about 0.2 Mbit/s. 3G offer recently 3.5G and 3.75G and it also provides broadband access of several Mbit/s to Smartphone and mobile.[4]


Third Generation problem (3G)

This refers to the third generation of mobile telephone technology. Third generation, as the name suggests, follows two earlier generations. Third generation partnership project (3 GPP) was formed in 1998 to faster deployment of 3G network that descend from GSM. 3GPP technologies evolved follow: General packet Radio Service (GPRS) offered speed up to 144kbps, Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) reached up to 384kbps, UMTS Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) offered downlink speeds up to 1.92Mbps, High speed Downlink packet Access (HSDPA) boosted the downlink to 14Mbps and LTE Evolved Terrestrial Radio Access (E- UTRA) is aiming for 100Mbps 3G enables devices such as mobile phones and mobile dongles to deliver broadband-speed internet. 3G the data sent on the network into small packets. These packets are then assembled in the correct order at the receiver’s end. This is very different from normal 2G technology in which small portion of the network is reserved for a call. 3G technology also enables mobile service providers to know the location of the handset using the service.






Applications: Video conferencing, mobile TV, GPS

Switching type= Packet switching except for Air Interface

Introduced =in year 2001

Multiple Address/Access system = CDMA

Features= Multimedia features, Video Call

Internet service= Broad Band

Bandwidth=384 Kbps

Operating frequencies=2100 MHz

Carrier frequency= 5 MHz


Disadvantage of Third Generation (3G)

High power consumption, Low network coverage, High cost of spectrum license

Advantage of Third Generation (3G)

High security, international roaming











Figure 3 (Third Generation)



Fourth Generation (4G)

The 4G (fourth generation) of mobile network communication, 4G standard very fast and reliable as compare to 3G network 4G communication is very fast and reliable and unique. Voice quality and video quality very reliable and multimedia messaging service, it’s guaranteed to deliver data on destination. 1G based on analog signal and 2G based on digital and 3G support multimedia access.

4G is basically the extension of 3G technology with more bandwidth and speed. The prospect from 4G technology is high speed Internet connection and high speed and reliable voice quality. The word Magic also refers to 4G Wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia, anywhere global mobility solutions over, and integrated wireless and customized services.[5]


Fourth Generation problem (4G)

This is the term used to refer to the fourth generation of mobile wireless services that has been defined by the ITU and its Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) and established as an agreed upon and globally accepted definition in IMT-Advanced. The speed and standards of this technology of wireless needs to be at least 100 Megabits per second and up to 1 Gigabit per second to pass as 4G. It also needs to share the network resources to support more simultaneous connections on the cell. As it develops, 4G could surpass the speed of the average wireless broadband home Internet connection. Few devices are capable of the full throttle yet. Coverage of true 4G is limited to large metropolitan areas. 4G is a set of standards of mobile technology that entail increased data transfer speeds, enhanced security, and reduced blips in transmission when a device moves between areas covered by different networks. 4G is faster than 3G.







Applications: High speed applications, mobile TV, Wearable devices

Switching type= Packet switching

Introduced in year= 2010

Multiple Address/Access system = CDMA

Features= High Speed, real time streaming

Internet service= Ultra Broad band Digital all very high throughput IP Packet

Bandwidth= 2Mbps to 1Gbps

Operating frequencies= 2 TO 8 GHz

Carrier frequency= 15 MHz


Advantage of Fourth Generation (4G)

Today we talk some advantages and disadvantages of 4G LTE TECNOLOGY.  4G LTE is the 4th generation with high data speed, the 4G can reach 100Mbps, 150Mbps and 300Mbps, future will update to 1000Mbps. It speedily downloads the file over the wireless network system or form particularly elevated voice excellence It can simply reach internet instant Massaging (IM) common networks video calling many more thing It has advanced It continues connected to the internet devoid of any disturbance It has simpler approach to the service & consumption Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services -IP based mobile system-High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit. -Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services, seamless switching and a variety of quality of better spectral efficiency, Service driven services
and better scheduling and call admission control techniques.

Speed, High-speed handoffs, MIMO technology, Global mobility


Disadvantage of Fourth Generation (4G)

Expensive and hard to implement

Battery usage is more

Needs complex hardware

It has advanced data rates for customers

Customers are required to purchase new

Equipment to maintain the 4G

The 4G is only presently accessible in cities

Hard to implement, complicated hardware require


Figure 4 (Fourth Generation)


Fifth Generation (5G)

5G Generation of mobile network communication is a complete set of wireless communication. At present 5G, any companies or standardization bodies, such as 3GPP, WiMAX forum or ITU-R., do not launch network new 3GPP, normal releases beyond 4G and LTE advanced are in development, but not measured as new mobile generation.   At el 5G based on Multimedia newspapers, and user can also watch TV programs with the clarity as that of and HD.T.V. We can send data much faster than that of the previous generation of mobile computing. 5G will bring almost Perfect real world wireless or called “WWW: worldwide wireless web. 5G there is no issue of wireless communication Currently there is no 5G Technology deployed when this become available it will provide very high speed to the consumers it would also provide efficient use of available bandwidth as has been through development of each new technology.[6]


Fifth Generation problem (5G

Fifth generation denotes the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standard. 5G is also referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies.

In reality, 5G does not exist yet but the future network next to 4G we say as 5G. We so far heard about only LTE advanced, which gives peak download speed of 1Gbps and upload speed of 512Mbps, but you cannot drain full capacity with your mobile device. It is expected that 4G network will see its end in few years to come and 5G will be its successor. 5G network will not be only more speed but also capable of carrying huge data. This generation is expected to roll out in the year 2020. 5G might solve the problem of frequency licensing and spectrum management issues. 5G terminals might have software-defined radios; also it might have different modulation schemes and error control schemes. It might also provide hundreds of channel without streaming.




The main factor of 5G network is reliability between the networks node and these requirements are very hard in manufacturing communication applications 5G network


required more security and HD quality Video on their Cell phoneNew generation of broadband satellite communication is being developed to support multimedia and internet based applications. The space way system provides downlink transmission rates of upto 100Mb/s and a total capacity up to 4.4Gb/s. in order to significantly Increase the capacity of 4G broadband satellite system using advanced quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) scheme. The remarkable issue, there don‘t have any limitation in 5G as respect to user demands in the next 200 years. The 5G also involve the whole wireless world interconnection (WISDOM—Wireless Innovative System for Dynamic Operating Mega communications concept), together with very high data rates of the Quality of Service (QoS) applications. 5G-IU (5G Interfacing Unit) acts to make the most powerful of 5G wireless communication system.



Applications: Some of the significant applications are −

It will make unified global standard for all.

Network availability will be everywhere and will facilitate people to use their computer and such kind of mobile devices anywhere anytime.

Because of the IPv6 technology, visiting care of mobile IP address will be assigned as per the connected network and geographical position.

Its application will make world real Wi Fi zone.




Switching type= Packet switching except for Air Interface

Introduced =in year 2020

Multiple Address/Access system = CDMA & BDMA

Features= Multimedia features, Video Call

Internet service= Broad Band

Bandwidth=1Gbps & Higher

Operating frequencies= 3 to 300 GHz


Advantage of Fifth Generation (5G)

There are several advantages of 5G technology, some of the advantages have been shown in the above Ericsson image, and many others are described below −

High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.

Technology to gather all networks on one platform.

More effective and efficient.

Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick action.

Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which will support more than 60,000 connections.

Easily manageable with the previous generations.

Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including private network).

Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity across the world.



Figure 5 (fifth generation)













Disadvantage of Fifth Generation (5G)

Though, 5G technology is researched and conceptualized to solve all radio signal problems and hardship of mobile world, but because of some security reason and lack of technological advancement in most of the geographic regions, it has following shortcomings −

Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.

The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future, it might be) because of the incompetent technological support in most parts of the world.

Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them need to be replaced with new one — expensive deal.

Developing infrastructure needs high cost.

Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.




In computer science, an implementation is a realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a program, software component, or other computer system through computer programming and deployment. Many implementations may exist for a given specification or standard. For example, web browsers contain implementations of World Wide Web Consortium-recommended specifications, and software development tools contain implementations of programming languages.

A special case occurs in object-oriented programming, when a concrete class implements an interface; in this case the class is an implementation of the interface and it includes methods which are implementations of those methods specified by the interface













Project Methodology:

This paper investigates different methods of Mobile technology comprehensive list of references is

reported and comparisons of various methods such as 1G, 2G, 3G,4G is reported Wireless communications Networks have become much more pervasive an any one could have imagined. The wide spread success of Cellular has led to the development of newer wireless systems and standards for many other types of telecommunication traffic besides mobile voice telephone calls. Nowadays, a rapid growth in mobile technology the customer needs to a great extent but it is still developing to a great height which makes the People’s life easier. A broad survey in the development of Mobile technology is reported in this paper. In this chapter the methodology were discussed in detail. The general methodology contains the data collection step followed by system design phase. The system design has two major sub phases namely: Logical Design and Physical Design phase. The chapter first discusses about the collection techniques in general and specifies the collection techniques used in the development of this project. Next, the development models were discussed and again the chosen model for this project was highlighted. Later in the chapter the design were explained in detail.


Data collection method

Data-collection techniques allow us to systematically collect information about our objects of study (people, objects, ) and about the settings in which they occur there are many types of data collection techniques such as Interviewing Observation, Questionnaires and Using available information.

The key point here is that the collected data is unique and should help with the database design and make operations process clear.


Using available information

Usually there is a large amount of data that has already been collected by others, although it may not necessarily have been analyzed or published. Locating these sources and retrieving the information is a good starting point in any data collection effort.

From the above-mentioned data collection techniques, interviewing was selected as data collection method for this project because it has the following advantages:




Assessment Phase:

As we evaluate the current 2g, 3g, 4g communication between end user such as (Mobiles or other wireless device) they need more bandwidth and faster speed, which is not in capacity of 2g, 3g, and 4g. The only generation, which can be suitable and can achieve customer satisfaction, is 5g.


Designing Phase:











This chapter explains the implantation details of the project. It shows the front end layout and explains its major components. This chapter also discusses the purpose, usage, characteristics, and limitation of the software components. The following sections explain the software using snapshot of the front end of the system. Every figure has its own description attached with it.


Implementation Phase:

This Generation of wireless communication technology of mobile network Wireless standard implementation

(1G)  First   Generation 1981

(2G)  Second Generation1991

(3G)  Third   Generation 2001

(4G)  Fourth Generation 2010

(5G)  Fifth Generation 2020



A wireless communication network refers to any type of network that establishes connections without cables. Wireless communications use electromagnetic (EM) waves that travel through the air. There are three main categories of wireless communication, based on how far the signal travels.

In short-range wireless communication, the signal travels from a few centimeters to several meters. Examples include Bluetooth, infrared. In medium-range wireless communication, the signal travels up to 100 meters or so. Wi-Fi is the best-known example. In wide-area wireless communication, the signal travels quite far, from several kilometers to several thousand kilometers. Examples of wide-area wireless communication systems are cellular communications, WIMAX and satellite communications. All of these use some form of microwave signals.

Microwaves are high-frequency signals in the 300 MHz to 300 GHz range. The signals can carry thousands of channels at the same time, making it a very versatile communication system. Microwaves are often used for point-to-point telecommunications, which means that the signal is focused into a narrow beam. You can typically recognize microwave-based communication systems by their use of a large antenna, often in a dish format. This is in contrast to radio signals, which are typically broadcast in all directions. Radio signals operate in the 3 Hz to 300 MHz range.

Microwave signals are used for both satellite and ground-based communications. Many TV and telephone communications in the world are transmitted over long distances using microwave signals. They use a collection of ground stations and communication satellites. Ground stations are typically placed roughly 50 kilometers apart so they ‘see’ each other.

Microwaves are also used in – you guessed it – microwave ovens. These microwaves, however, are quite different from those used in communication systems. First, the microwaves have a much higher power level so they can heat your food. Second, the signal doesn’t carry any information because you’re not trying to tell your something.

Mobile phones have become one of the most widely used wireless communication devices. You probably use one every day and don’t think too much about how it actually works – except when it doesn’t work.

So, how do mobile phones work? A mobile phone or cell phone is very much like a two-way radio; you can wirelessly send and receive information. There are a few major components to the mobile phone system. These include cell towers, network processing centers and the actual phones themselves.

Communications within a cellular network are made possible by cell towers. Your mobile phone establishes a wireless connection using electromagnetic waves with the nearest cell tower. This is a two-way connection, meaning you can both send and receive information. The cell tower has a wired connection to the telephone network. This makes it possible for you to connect with any other telephone in the world.

So when you make a phone call from one cell phone to another, your phone connects to the cell tower, the cell tower connects to a network processing center, the network connects to another cell tower and that cell tower connects to the cell phone you are trying to reach. All this happens within a split second back and forth.

As you move about your day, your wireless connection will jump from one cell tower to the next depending on where you are. This makes it possible to maintain a connection even if you travel great distances. The transmission distance of cell towers is in the order of several kilometers, so cell towers are placed close enough together for their signals to overlap. The area covered by a single cell tower is referred to as a ‘cell’ or ‘site.’ A large metropolitan area may have hundreds of cells to cover the entire region.

If you are in a remote area far from the nearest cell tower, your phone will lose its connection to the network. These are the dreaded ‘dead zones’ without service. You may also lose service if you are in a location where signals have difficulty penetrating. This includes metal and concrete – and this is why you often lose reception in an elevator or in an underground parking garage.


Anywhere else your phone doesn’t work? You got it – in an airplane at 30,000 feet. The cellular network uses ground-based towers, so as soon as you get in the air, you’re going to lose the signal

Characteristics of GSM Network:

GSM stands for Global System for Mobiles. This is a world-wide standard for digital cellular telephony, or as most people know them Digital Mobile Telephones. GSM was created by the Europeans, and originally meant “Group Special Mobile”, but this didn’t translate well, so the now common more globally appealing name was adopted. GSM is a published standard by ETSI, and has now enjoys widespread implementation in Europe, Asia, and increasingly America.

There are many arguments about the relative merits of analogue versus digital, but for my mind it comes down to this: Analogue sounds better and goes further, Digital doesn’t sound as


good, but does a whole lot more. Check out the links page for sites that have some good discussion on the Digital v Analogue debate.

Examples of what digital can do that analogue doesn’t (or doesn’t do very well) are, Fax send & receive, Data calls, and Messaging.

Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems.

From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen.


Hardware Requirement:

Table 1: Hardware

BTS=Base Transceiver Station

Software Requirement:

Table 2: Software


Purpose of Study1G progress to 5G:

In past decade and even today low speed data services and provided by 2G system which do not meet up our future system requirement It will provide increase demand for a new system called 3G mobile telecommunication system which assure to deliver High speed data services and high quality video and audio quality 4G mobile communication systems LTE


was developed to provide High quality and high capacity data service for mobile multimedia user which is still to run in most of the countries. 2G operates 900, 1800/1900 MHz and 3G operates 2GHz, these frequency brands provide wider bandwidth to meet multimedia challenges.

Goal of Study 1G progress to 5G:

1G, 2G, 3G, 4G – The Evolution of Wireless generations

In this knowledgebase article, we will focus on the evolution and development of various generations of mobile wireless technology along with their significance and advantages of one over the other. In the past few decades, mobile wireless technologies have experience 4 or 5 generations of technology revolution and evolution, namely from 0G to 4G. Current research in mobile wireless technology concentrates on advance implementation of 4G technology and 5G technology. Currently 5G terms not officially used.



0G Wireless Technology

0G refers to pre-cell phone mobile telephony technology, such as radio telephones that some had in cars before the advent of cell phones. Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are called 0G (zero generation) systems.

Literature Review 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G

Comparison between 1G,2G ,3G,4G no.9 Generation 1g 2g 3g 4g 5g Years 1980’s 1990’s 2000’s 2010’s 2020’s Data Bandwidth 2kbps 64kbps 2Mbps 200Mbp s 1Gbps Standards Amps TDMA, CDMA, GSM WCDMA Single unified standards Single unified standards Technology Analog Digital Cellular Broadband with Unified IP Unified IP & seamless Services Mobile Technology(Voice) Voice, SMS

Integrated high quality video Dynamic information access Dynamic information access With wearable devices Multiplexing FDMA TDMA,C DMA CDMA CDMACDMA Switching Circuit Circuit and packet Packet All packet All packet Detail comparison




Comparative Study of 1G to 5G

Here we summarize the comparison among the generations of mobile communication in terms of requirements, Data bandwidth, core network, service, standards, multiple access, switching, and frequency.



    1G 2G 3G 4G 5G  
  Requirements No official


Analog technology

No official


Digital Technology

ITU‟s IMT-2000 required 144 kbps mobile, 384 kbps pedestrian, 2

Mbps indoors

ITU‟s IMT Advanced


include ability

to operate in up to 40 MHz radio channels and with very high spectral



at least 1 GB/s or more data rates to support ultra-high definition video and virtual reality, applications, 10 GB/s data rates to support mobile cloud service







  Data Bandwidth 1.9 kbps 14..4 kbps to 384 kbps 2 Mbps 2 Mbps to 1 Gbps 1Gbps & Higher (as demand )  
     Core    network `PSTN PSTN Packet Network Packet network All IP Network Flatter IP Network & 5G Network Interfacing(5G-NI)








Service Analog voice Digital voice





Integrated high quality audio, video and data Dynamic information access, wear-able devices, HD streaming; global roaming;


Dynamic information access, wear-able devices, HD streaming; any demand of users; upcoming all technologies; global roaming smoothly;    
  Standards NMT, AMPS,

Hicap, CDPD,





All access convergence including: OFMDA,MC-CDMA Network-LMPS


  Multiple access FDMA TDMA




  Starts from 1970-84 1990 2001 2010 2015  
  Switching Circuit Circuit




Packet All Packet




  Frequency 800-900 Reference


850-1900MHZ 1.6-2.5GHZ 2-8GHZ  








Servers: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G:

GSM Network Devices:

  • GSM
  • (BTS) Base Transceiver Station


  • MSC










As the 4G chapter closes, a new era beckons which requires networking technology to evolve and to be ready for next-generation services and demand.

We not only need to evolve legacy system to be more competitive, but we also require new disruptive ideas to secure the 5G market and faster growth for the future. Indeed, we need to adopt a proactive stance in order to be ready for the 5G story. In this concluding chapter, we will harness some of the technology paradigms to build a picture of the current state of 5G emphasizing some of the challenge that still lie ahead.

5G technology is the upcoming technology and the bandwidth for this is very high and was having higher data transfer rate.

However, now we are using the 3G technology efficiently and in some countries the people are using the 4G but in future we can use 5G technology. Many big countries are investing huge amount of money on this project as it was having high demand in the future. It will altogether manufacture flexibility, limit, degree, comparability and meeting. Thusly, it will satisfy the growing solicitations of rising big-data, cloud, machine-to-machine, and diverse applications.








  2.—the-evolution-of-wireless-generations [2,3]
  4. [6]
  5. [4]
  7. [1]





Title  5G Networks: Fundamental Requirements, Enabling Technologies, and Operations Management

Authors Anwer Al-Dulaimi, Xianbin Wang, I. Chih-Lin, Publisher Wiley, 2018, Length 300 pages.[6]


Title  Fundamentals of 5G Mobile Networks:

Editor, Jonathan Rodriguez, Edition, illustrated, Publisher, John Wiley & Sons, 2015

Lengt 334 pages.[6]


Title  GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology, and Implementation Artech House mobile communications library Mobile communications series

Author Gunnar Heine, Publisher Artech House, 1999, Length 416 pages.[1]


Title  2G Mobile Networks McGraw-Hill Professional: Networking, Author Narang Publisher Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2006, Length 351 pages.[3]


Article Details: 




Registration No: MIHE2014-BCS-0190

Bachelor of Computer Science

Under the Supervision of

Mr. Nasir Ayubi

Assistant Professor

       Maiwand Institute of Higher Education
Kabul Afghanistan

Spring, 2018


A Thesis Presented to

Maiwand Institute of Higher Education

In partial fulfillment

Of the requirement for the degree of

Bachelor of Computer Science


Name: Walid Amiri

Registration number: MIHE2014-BCS-0190



Spring, 2018

Final Approval


The undersigned have examined the thesis entitled Gsm 5 Generation Network

Presented by Walid Amiri, a candidate for the degree of BCS (Bachelor of Computer Science) and hereby certify that it is worthy of acceptance.


_______________________                                           ___________________________

Signature & Date                                                               Examiner


_______________________                                           ___________________________

Signature &Date                                                                Supervisor


________________________                                       ____________________________

Signature & Date                                                             Co-Supervisor (Where Required)


_________________________                                     __ Mr. Massoud Massoudi ______

Signature & Date                                                             HoD





I walid hereby declare that I have produced the work presented in this thesis, during the scheduled period of study. I also declare that I have not taken any material from any source except referred to wherever due that amount of plagiarism is within acceptable range. If a violation of Institute rules on research has occurred in this thesis, I shall be liable to punishable action under the plagiarism rules of the Institute.




Name: Walid Amiri
Registration number: MIHE-BCS- 2014-0190





This is to certify that this thesis work entitled Gsm 5 Generation Network submitted by Walid is a bachelor’s project work carried out under my supervision and guidance and fulfilling the nature and standard required for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Computer Science. The work embodied in this thesis has not been submitted elsewhere for a degree.



Mr. Nasir Ayubi
Assistant Professor












I am thankful from Nasir Ayubi who has kindly offered me a unique occasion to perform this work in his research group. I wish to extend my gratitude to Mr. Massoud Massoudi Head of the Department of Computer Science – MAIWAND INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION for his kindness and compassion during my studies as well as project completion.

Finally, I am thankful to every member of the faculty of Computer Science Department for their guidance, friendly and encouraging attitude during my studies.



Name / Registration Number

Walid Amiri / MIHE-BCS-0190
























Problem Statement: 2

The problems of previous generations of the internet are as follows. 2


First Generation (1G) 5

First Generation problem (1G) 5

Advantage of First Generation (1G) 6

Disadvantage of First Generation (1G) 7

Second Generation (2G) 8

Second Generation problem (2G) 8

Advantage of Second Generation (2G) 9

Disadvantage of Second Generation (2G) 9

Third Generation (3G) 11

Third Generation problem (3G) 11

Disadvantage of Third Generation (3G) 12

Advantage of Third Generation (3G) 12

Fourth Generation (4G) 14

Fourth Generation problem (4G) 14

Advantage of Fourth Generation (4G) 15

Disadvantage of Fourth Generation (4G) 16

Fifth Generation (5G) 17

Fifth Generation problem (5G.. 17

Advantage of Fifth Generation (5G) 19

Disadvantage of Fifth Generation (5G) 21


Project Methodology: 23


Assessment Phase: 25

Designing Phase: 26


Implementation. 27

Implementation Phase: 27

Characteristics of GSM Network: 29

Hardware Requirement: 30

Software Requirement: 30

Purpose of Study1G progress to 5G: 31

Goal of Study 1G progress to 5G: 31

0G Wireless Technology. 32

Literature Review 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G. 32

Comparative Study of 1G to 5G.. 33







Table 1: Hardware. 35

Table 2: Software. 35













Figure 1 (First Generation) 12

Figure 2 (Second Generation) 15

Figure 3 (Third Generation) 18

Figure 4 (Fourth Generation) 21

Figure 5 (fifth generation) 25




  • (GPRS) General Packet Radio Service
  • (GSN) GPRS Support node
  • (GTP) GPRS tunneling Protocol
  • (GGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node
  • (PCU) Packet Control Unit
  • (PDN) Public Private Packet Data Network
  • (PDP )Packet Data Protocol
  • (PLMN) Public Land mobile Network
  • (SGSN )Serving GPRS Support Node
  • (SIM )Subscriber Identity Module
  • (SMG) Special Mobile Group
  • (TDMA) Time Division Multiple Access
  • (TID )Tunnel Identifier
  • (TMSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber
  • (PSO )Packet Switch Operation


GSM=Global system for mobile

  2. (BTS) Base Transceiver Station
  5. MSC
  16. SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
  18. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
  19. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
  20. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)